Ilocano language, culture, literature

Sunday, August 27, 2006

Philippine eLib

I recently learned about the Philippine eLib, a collaborative cyber library project of the National Library of the Philippines (NLP), University of the Philippines (UP), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Department of Agriculture (DA), and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).

It is funded through the e-Government Fund of the Philippine Government. It hopes to provide for the information needs of all sectors of society in a convenient (accessible 24/7), affordable, and efficient way of delivery.

Available resources include:

· Union catalog of the 5 partners;

· Digitized Filipiniana materials including theses and dissertations;

· Special collection/researches of the 5 partners;

· Online resources/subscription to electronic databases.

The website has announced that pre-paid membership cards are now available in denominations of P100, P300, P500, and P1,000 at the General Reference Section, University Library, University of the Philippines Diliman. For inquiries, Dial: (632)926-1880/(632)981-8500 Local 2861.

The cards will also be available in other Partner Institutions soon. Please keep posted.

There are 5 types of membership to the Philippine eLib, namely:

· Partners - Content Builders of the Portal's union database and are given unlimited access to all local contents;

· Corporate Subscribers - Institutions subscribed to the Philippine e-Lib via IP authentication for a limited period of time;

· Individual Subscribers - Individuals who have paid subscription fees for a limited period of time;

· Prepaid Card Users - Users who log-in to the Portal using Prepaid card accounts (Prepaid cards will be made available later, please keep posted);

· Guest Users - Unpaid subscribers who can search the database and download fulltext contents upon payment to the Philippine e-Lib.

There’s a comprehensive FAQ that should be helpful for anyone attempting to use eLib.

As of now, however, anyone who wants to surf the website may find it too slow to respond to most anything one requests it to do. Filipinayzd (which is off-line as of this writing) emailed me on Aug. 23, 2006, that the eLib website was offline.

Inspite of the hardware/software kinks that need to be ironed out, eLib is a treasure trove of information at one’s fingertips. Imagine a collection of more than 800,000 bibliographic records consisting of more than 25 million pages of local and international materials, 29,000 full text journals, a Filipiniana Section, and 15,000 theses and dissertations accessible 24/7! To give you an idea of the breadth of the project, I browsed the listnames starting with "Iloc" and "Ilok" and came up with more than 100 entries. Pretty good starting point for someone doing research on Ilocandia--its people, the language, literature, culture, etc.

The fly in the ointment is the fee the prospective user has to pre-pay to get "deeper" into the eLib. Browsing the topic entries and a few applications are free, but downloading the actual article/write-up and other "meatier" applications are not. We could understand the fee for accessing the foreign subscriptions/databases. But it would be nice to be able to access the local content free of charge.

As in some new enterprises in need of developing a consumer base of access-fee paying customers, it will do well for the Philippine eLib to offer FREE trial subscriptions/memberships (maybe for a week, a month, etc.) to give prospective users the opportunity to satisfy their curiosity for the cyber library’s products and services.

Thursday, August 17, 2006

Literature: Regional vs. National

Diac napigilan ti naalicuteg nga isem a nangabalbalay iti ngiwngiwco idi naawatco toy e-mail ni Sinamar R. Tabin, mannurat iti Ilocano ken naicameng iti TMI America:

Nalpas met laeng ti umuna a panagkikita dagiti opisial ti TMI America a naangay iti Mandalay Bay Hotel iti Las Vegas idi August 5-6, 2006… Napagsasaritaan ti umuna a proyekto ti TMI America nga isu ti libro a manglaon iti patarus a dandaniw, sarita, ken salaysay maipanggep iti migrasion ket maiprinta iti parallel—agsango nga Ingles ken Iluko. Manamnama a rummuar ti libro inton kombension ti NAKEM dita Hawaii…

Apay a napaisemac? Naipalagip caniac ti dilemma ni Apo Bienvenido Lumbera, National Artist of the Year for Literature (2006), iti salaysayna, Harnessing Regional Literature for National Literature:

“…Why is it that literary works in Spanish and English, although written by regional writers, seem to transcend geographical and linguistic boundaries, slipping away from the confines of “regional” literature” Surely, Resil B. Mojares must have been revolting against such an anomaly when he put out under one cover a collection of English fiction by Cebuano writers and called the anthology The Writers of Cebu (1978). Resistance to the concept may explain why other anthologists have not come up with such collections as “Ilocano Writing in English” or “Literatura Tagala en Español.” The language of the colonial masters have indeed been so privileged that whatever is written in either Spanish or English seem to automatically attain the stature of “national” writing.” xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


Ania ngata ti sawen ni Apo Lumbera no cas pagarigan—cas pagarigan laeng—mabasana ti Ingles a dandaniw, sarsarita ken salsalaysay a panggepen nga ipablaac ti TMI America no cas pagarigan dina ammo a naitarus dagitoy manipud iti original nga Ilocano? Isu cadi daytoy ti cunana a licliclican dagiti anthologists nga “Ilocano Writing in English”?


Iti panagkitac, saan unay nga adayo dagiti pacasecnan ni Apo Lumbera (maipanggep iti regional wenno vernacular literature) iti sikigan dagiti pamanunotan ni Paritosh Uttam (maysa a mannurat iti India) cas maaninag iti weblogna a napauluan iti Regional literature versus IWE (Indian Writing in English). Kinaagpaysuanna ket bassit ti paggidiatanda isu a casla agdueto dagitoy iti panangaramatda iti nationalist rhetoric nangnangruna no mapagsasaritaan ti literatura ken sangcailian a pagsasao, ti regional versus national literature.


Iti pammaliiwco, gapu iti kinarubrob ti tarigagay dagiti mangitangtanguyob iti nacionalismo, cayatda a patien nga adda ti awan, cayatda a patien a ti sangcailian a pagsasao a Filipino ti mangcemento iti panangicalicagum iti nailian nga irarang-ay. Pagdacsanna, nataliwaywayanda ti language loyalty dagiti Ilocano, dagiti Cebuano, dagiti Bicolano ken dadduma pay. Iti panagpalutpotna, The importance of mother tongue-based schooling for educational quality, linagidaw ni Carol Benson daytoy concepto ti maysa a sangcailian a "unifiying language": "The colonial concept that a nation-state requires a single unifying language has influenced policy-makers in many parts of the word, yet imposition of a so-called 'neutral' foreign language has not necessarily resulted in unity, nor have relatively monolingual countries like Somalia, Burundi or Rwanda been guaranteed stability. In fact, government failure to accept ethnolinguistic diversity has been a major destablizing force in countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka."


Ikiwar tay met ditoy ti pamanunotan ni Apo Jimmy Agpalo, Jr., premiado a mannurat, literary critic ken editor ti Tawid News Magasin, iti weblogna a napauluan Panagrangpaya ti Rehional a Dandaniw iti Kamalig:


“Nabagas dagiti daniw a nagbugas kadagiti pasamak iti away. Kasapulan a parangpayaen ti rehional a dandaniw tapno ad-adda pay a bumileg ti panagkaykaysa ni Filipino ken tapno maaddaantayo iti napudpudno a nailian a lenguahe, nga isu dayta ti Filipino -- a kayatna a sawen, a saan laeng a Tagalog, no dipay manipud iti nagtitipon a rehional a lenguahe.”

Ngata? Panagcaycaysa ni Filipino babaen ti napudpudno a nailian a lenguahe manipud iti nagtitipon a regional a lenguahe? National identity? Napintas a darepdep. Dumtengto dayta--diac supiaten ta isu ngarud ti naikeddeng nga icagumaanan ti Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino. Ngem nalabit naginad bassit ti panagtulid ti panawen santo magun-od dayta a darepdep. Agingga iti di agdur-as ti socioeconomia wenno agbaliw ti panagrigrigat ti biag ti caadduan a Filipino, numero uno a pacasecnanda ti panangpanunot wenno panangiremedio iti sumaruno nga ipabucsitda sadanto tamingen ti maipanggep iti "panagcaycaysa" wenno "national identity", ken no ania ti paggidiatan ti regional ken national literature.

No cayatmo a mapanecnecan dayta, inca agusisa diay sango ti Cultural Center of the Philippines tapno maimutectecam a mismo no siasinno dagiti agduyos nga agbuya cadagiti "cultural events" sadiay--dagitoy a miembro ti sociedad tayo ken dagiti sumagmamano a napnuan iti idealism wenno mangipagarup nga adda babac ti status quo a tarigagayenda nga aturen (dagitay makiparparticipar iti public demonstrations/rallies for or against issues affecting them in the short or long term) ti mabalin adda panawenna nga agpanunot wenno agtignay tapno umaddang dagiti issues a maipapan iti panagcaycaysa wenno national identity. Ayanna a pagdacsan ket sangcabassit laeng ti bilang dagitoy no maidasig iti caadu ti marigrigat--nangruna dagitay maibilang a "below the poverty line".

Diac patien a ti popular a code-switching phenomenon ti cayat a sawen ni Apo Agpalo iti "nagtitipon a rehional a lenguahe", agraman dagiti ganggannaet a pagsasao. Ngem adda panagamac ni Andrew Gonzalez iti salaysayna, Language Planning in Multilingual Countries: The Case of the Philippines, nga amangan daytanto ti pagtungpalan ti nailian a pagsasao a Filipino. [Ejemplo ti code-switching iti Ilocano, Ingles, Castila, ken Pilipino: "Apay nga ipapilit nga agsustener 'yong erpatmo sa insurance claim ng kabilang bangir, e ang itsura'y parejoda met a loaded?"] No agbalin daytoy a parte ti macuna a formal discourse cas nadacamat ni Andrew Gonzalez iti salaysayna a ket… um, no maawatam ti cayatna a sawen dayta naglalaoc a lenguaje, mabalin cunaen a "the intended communication succeeded". No paglalaokem ti Filipino, Ilocano, Ingles, Castila ken dadduma pay a pagsasao, a la code-switching, sa pasingitam itay sumagmamano a unique cellphone wenno instant messaging lingo/shortcuts ti putarem a sarita, daniw, novela wenno salaysay, di pay ket naulaw a justo ti sinno man nga agtarigagay a mangcategorize iti pinutarmo? Regional wenno national? Ket capilitan nga agbucar ti agayaw nga uban wenno umac-acaba ti mugingna...

Ania ngata ti cayat a sawen ni Apo Agpalo iti "rehional a dandaniw"? Patiem ngata a no umapay ti talocatic ken ni Ilocano A. Mannurat, bumaringcuas isuna a mapan sumango iti computerna a pangputaranna iti daniw "to depict the specificities of life experienced and viewed within a narrower framework" segun ti panangipapan ni Apo Lumbera? Ket no putarenna ti daniwna iti Ingles imbes nga Ilocano, ibilang ngata daytoy iti categoria ti "national literature expressing larger concerns and broader perspectives"?

No siac a maysa, atapec a naun-uneg sa met ngem ti pagsasao a nacaputaran ti regional literature ti gapuna nga umno nga awagan a regional ti masasao a regional literature. Iti salaysay, Regionalism in Literature, bigbigen ni Laurie Ricou a ti unique regional setting ti literatura ti gapuna a maawagan daytoy a regional literature: “Regional literature in the more precise sense is tied to the conventions of realism because it attempts to distinguish accurately the features of a clearly definable region, either rural or closely linked to the land. In its fullest achievement such regional literature, as the works of Thomas Hardy and William Faulkner show, is not synonymous with surface detail and pedestrian style but with profound exploration of the shaping influence of particular regions on individual lives.” Uray no bigbigen ken iraman ti historical, economic, ethnic ken linguistic dimensions, kinuna ni Ricou a “the connection to place and land remains important.”

Cas pagarigan: Calpasan ti lima a tawen a panagindeg ni Ilocano A. Mannurat iti Baghdad, Iraq, nagsubli iti Ilocos ket nangputar iti maysa a fiction thriller a la James Bond a nangusaranna cadagiti risiris ti gubat a civil, ti pananggura dagiti Iraqi cadagiti Americano, ti tagi-umsien a panagayan-ayat ti bida nga Americano a soldado ken ti napintas a balasang nga Iraqi, ti napeggad ken napno iti minas a deppaar ti Baghdad, kdpy. Diac mamati a rebbengna nga ibilang nga Ilocano regional literature daytoy maigapu laeng ta naputar iti Ilocano. No maitarus daytoy a fiction iti Ingles cas iti proyecto ti TMI America, diac man ammo no “Aha, national literature dayta!” ti panirig ni Apo Lumbera wenno ketdi pungotenna ti buocna.

Thursday, August 10, 2006

Vernacular Filipiniana

Iti salaysay, “The Rugged Terrain of Vernacular Literature,” binabalaw ni Bienvenido Lumbera, National Artist of the Year iti Literatura (2006), ti pangladawen nga irurusing ti interes iti literatura ti nacayanacan a pagsasao, cas pagarigan, Ilocano, Cebuano, Tagalog, Bicol, Hiligaynon, Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, kdpy., ken casta met ti panangtaripato cadagitoy tapno mataginayon nga agpaay iti amin agraman ti masacbayan a caputotan.

Tallo a banag ti pacasecnan ni Lumbera: (1) ti problema ti caadda ti vernacular literature nga usigen, (2) ti problema maipanggep iti panangawis cadagiti nacagun-od iti adal wenno padas iti panagusig, ken (3) ti methodology ti panagusig. Mabalin nga inayon cadagitoy ti in-inut a pannacapucaw wenno pannacalipat cadagiti macuna nga oral literature nga impatawid dagiti nagcacauna a caputotan.

Segun ti panagpalutpot, Thirty Endangered Languages in the Philippines, nga impresenta ni Thomas N. Headland (Summer Institute of Linguistics, Dallas, Texas ken University of North Dakota) iti Ninth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 9-13, 2002, ken iti 101st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, November 20-24, 2002:

The Casiguran Agta people live in the foothills and seacoast of the Sierra Madre near the town of Casiguran, Aurora Province. They numbered 1,000 people in 1936, and 800 when my wife, Janet Headland, and I began living with them in 1962. In 1977 they numbered 617 people, and in 1984, 609. Their population has remained stationary since the 1980s at around 600.


The Agta were still hunters and gatherers when we met them in 1962, living in the largest rainforest in the Philippines...


…the Agta people today, who number only 600, are surrounded and outnumbered 85 to 1 by some 50,000 Tagalog-speaking lowlander immigrants. Most Agta families now live next door to these Tagalog homesteaders instead of with each other. When lowlanders are present the conversation usually switches to Tagalog. Casiguran Agta speech is threatened because Tagalog, not Agta is the language used in educational, political, and other public situations. No Agta children attended public schools in the 1960s. Today there are elementary schools all up and down the Casiguran coast, and almost all Agta children attend for at least a year or two. Government teachers teach in Tagalog, and almost all of the pupils are Tagalog, with 3% to 4% being Agta. Casiguran Agta is still spoken in the home and it is still the mother tongue of Agta children. But more often than not, as soon as Agta leave their houses they are engaged in interethnic relations with lowlanders, in the Tagalog language. Even when Agta talk with each other today, they are using many hundreds of new words they have subconsciously borrowed from Tagalog, terms needed for today’s serious discussions: work, science, technology, Philippine money, affairs in town, etc. The Casiguran Agta who have been forest-oriented for millennia are today living in deforested brushlands and they are now town- and lowlander-oriented. Their changing language reflects that.

Iti salaysay, The Languages of the Philippines, nadacamat ni Jessie Grace Rubrico nga adda agarup nasuroc a sangagasut a pagsasao iti Filipinas, agraman dagiti walo a cangrunaan: Ilocano, Cebuano, Tagalog, Bicol, Hiligaynon, Waray, Kapampangan, ken Pangasinense. Ngem gapu cadagiti socioeconomic ken sociolinguistic factors, cas impanecnec ti panagpalutpot ni Headland, mabalin a mapucaw dagiti dadduma a pagsasao ket mapucaw met ti literatura dagitoy, aglalo dagiti saan a naimaldit ti literaturada.

Iti panangipapan ni Lumbera, uppat a paricut ti agur-uray iti asino man nga aginteres a mangusig iti vernacular literature: (a) nakisang ti usigen a naurnong a literatura agsipud ta adu ti nadadael, napucaw, ken nalipatan gapu iti panagtulid ti panawen, (b) adu ti naperdi iti naudi a gubat, (c) naipuni dagiti sangcabassit a nabati iti seccion Filipiniana dagiti biblioteca ket masansan a limitado ti accessibility dagitoy, ken (d) adu dagiti manuscrito ken liblibro dagiti pimmusayen a mannurat a tinawid ken impacni dagiti familiada imbes a nagtungpal cadagiti biblioteca.

Ania ngay ti mabalin nga aramiden tapno maispal ti nabati a nagcacauna a vernacular literature—oral ken sinurat--iti kinadamsac ti aglabas nga aldaw?

Ti makitac a pamuspusan a pangsalacnib iti vernacular literature agraman dagiti folksongs—nagcacauna agraman contemporary—isu ti panangurnong ken panangurnos cadagitoy iti Internet. Macatulong met ti panangusar iti digital camera a pangdocumento cadagiti casuratan a narigat wenno di mabalin nga isubo iti scanner. No maidulin dagitoy nadumaduma a vernacular literature iti lungalong ti Internet agbalin da nga accessible 24/7. Para cadatay amin. Para iti masacbayan a caputotan.

Ngem masapul nga irugi a dagus ti panang-digitize cadagiti nabati a nagcacauna a vernacular literature ken mai-record dagiti oral literature sacbay a madadael, mapucaw wenno malipatan dagitoy.

Nairagpin ti dackel a paset ti Filipiniana iti Philippine eLib, ti electronic wenno cyber library a nabuangay babaen ti panagtitinnulong ti lima a benneg ti govierno: Department of Science and Technology (DOST), The National Library (TNL), Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Department of Agriculture (DA), ken ti University of the Philippines (UP). Nalucatan ti library idi Abril 2005.

Pagdacsanna laeng ket saan a libre ti access rights iti eLib, malacsid cadagiti lima a benneg ti govierno a nangbuangay iti daytoy. Maysa pay, paricut sa met ti agtultuloy a funding ti eLib ket amangan no agserra daytoy, segun ti press release (RP e-Library faces possibility of being shut down) ti Philippine Inquirer a rimmuar idi Junio 18, 2006.

Nalabit adda pamuspusan. Agsipud ta library-related projects ti maysa a cangrunaan a tultulungan ti Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, mabalin ngata met ti agkiddaw a tulongan daytoy a foundation ti Philippine eLib. Cas iti panagabuloyna iti Mexico:
"To help ensure that Mexico residents have no-cost access to computers and digital information, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has committed $30 million to support these services in public libraries. The grant will provide computers and Internet access, staff training, and technical support for libraries throughout the country."

Ditay coma ngarud sayangen wenno palabasen daytoy a gundaway.

Friday, August 04, 2006

Rubino: Ilocano Dictionary and Grammar

Lexicography ti maysa cadagiti sumagmamano a topico a panggepen nga asicasuen ti NAKEM Centennial Conference a maangay iti Honolulu, Hawaii, iti daytoy umay a Noviember 9-12, 2006. Tangay diccionario ti maysa cadagiti pacasecnan ti lexicography, malagipco man a dacamaten ditoy ti "Ilocano Dictionary and Grammar", ti diccionario nga inurnos ni Apo Carl Ralph Galvez Rubino, maysa a lexicographer, nga impablaac ti University of Hawai’i Press idi 2000.

Castoy ti cuna ni Apo Rubino maipanggep iti ortografia iti page xiii ti Introduction ti dictionary:

In orthographic systems that have been used to write Ilocano since the 1600s, two systems have predominated. The older system is based on Spanish orthography and the newer system is the standardized alphabet [the 20-letter Tagalog ABAKADAJP] accepted for the Tagalog language, as used in the weekly Ilocano magazine, Bannawag The orthographic symbols o and u originally represented one phoneme with alternative pronunciations in specific environments (o word-finally). Due to the large number of foreign loans in the language and high degree of bilingualism, however, these letters now represent two contrastive vowels, e.g. oso ‘bear’ vs. uso ‘use, in fashion’.

Apay ngarud a pinaglalaoc ni Apo Rubino dagiti balicas a mangrugi iti ‘o’ wenno ‘u’ iti pages 389-407 ti dictionariona? Castoy man ti panangicalinteganna:

In the pre-Hispanic phonemic syllabary of the Ilocanos, o and u were not distinguished, since they did not contrast meaning. Because of the influx of foreign loans, however, Ilocanos are able to distinguish the two sounds (recognize them as different). Some Ilocano writers choose to reflect the phonetic distinction in their writing, while others do not. In order to simplify the search for words with these letters, I am alphabetizing them together, since no official spelling conventions have been adopted…

Iti pammaliiwco maysa a dackel a biddut ti panangipapan ni Apo Rubino a mabalin nga ibilang dagiti letra 'o' ken letra 'u' iti alphabet cas maysa. Isut gapuna a pinaglalaocna dagiti balicas a mangrugi iti o wenno u iti pages 389-407 toy diccionariona. Yantangay inusarna ti Tagalog ABAKADA, imbes a ti nacairuaman nga Spanish alphabet, rumbeng a sumaruno dagiti balicas a mangrugi iti letra 'o' cadagiti balicas a mangrugi iti letra 'n' (agsipud ta di met ibilang iti Ilocano ti letra ng ti Tagalog ABAKADA) ket sumaruno met dagiti balicas a mangrugi iti letra 'u' cadagiti balicas a mangrugi iti letra 't'.

Natural, no damdamom nga usaren ti dictionary ni Apo Rubino, agbalinto nga uban dagita nangisit a buocmo no ipilitmo a sapulen ti balicas nga uban iti labes dagiti balicas a mangrugi iti letra ‘t’.

Saan laeng a macaulaw daytoy alphabetizing scheme ni Apo Rubino no di ket inconsistent pay iti na-revise a 28-letter Filipino alphabet (which is actually the 27-letter Spanish alphabet plus ng) ken ti 26-letter English alphabet (same as the Spanish alphabet minus ñ). Tapno mapanecnecam, usigem daytoy. Cas pagarigan adda tallo nga annacmo nga agnagan iti Ana, Tomasa, ken Ursula ket adda tallo a paaramidmo cadacuada. Ibagam cadacuada nga ibunongmo dagitoy a paaramidmo in alphabetical order by their name. Calpasan ti yaabuloyda kenca, ibagam a mapan gumatang diario ti umuna, mapan gumatang ensamada ti maicadua, ken agugas iti lunglungan ti maicatlo. Patiem a di agriri ni Tomasa no ibagam a ni Ursula ti mapan gumatang iti ensamada?

Apsipud ta maangay ti NAKEM Centennial Conference iti University of Hawai’i nga isu a nacaipablaacan toy dictionary ni Apo Rubino, sapay coma ta addanto gundaway a marisut daytoy gapu ti pacaulawan.

Wednesday, August 02, 2006

Panangsukisoc iti Panagrang-ay ti Literatura Ilocana

Maragsacannac a nacaawat iti daytoy pacdaar (e-mailed Aug. 1, 2006) a napauluan iti RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ILOKO LITERATURE nga impatulod ti "SPADE FOUNDATION" (, agsipud ta cayatna a sawen, saan nga agsarday ti fuerza a mangidur-as iti bucod a literatura. Napintas nga addang daytoy iti justo a direccion.

Nailucon ti tallo a questionnaires: (1) Questionnaire for GUMIL Members, (2) Questionnaire for Award Winning Ilokano Writers, ken (3) Questionnaire for Ilokano Readers. Ipatulodyo ti e-mailyo caniac ( wenno iti no cayatyo ti agkiddaw iti copia ti masapulyo a questionnaire.


Dear Writer,

We are pleased to inform you that a national research team composed of educators, creative writers and cultural leaders, is embarking on a study geared towards the development of Iloko literature vis-a-vis global competitiveness.

The study shall assess the literary works of award-winning Ilokano writers across the globe, and at the same time, study their socio-demographic profile .

Respondent writers are members of GUMIL Filipinas, Inc., the umbrella organization of Ilokano writers, while respondent readers are Ilokanos residing here and abroad. Bannawag, the long-time Ilokano magazine being circulated in the Philippines and abroad, shall be the main point of reference in the national Iloko readership survey.

Every writer who wish to be part of this milestone of profiling our own Ilokano writers, including his or her literary works, is cordially invited to participate in this study. Deadline for submitting completely filled-up form is August 08, 2006.

The outcome of this research shall serve as main input in the preparation of a paper on the development of Iloko literature and in updating the 2006 GUMIL Directory.

The study is undertaken in close coordination with GUMIL Filipinas (GF), National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA),, National Book Development Board (NBDB), Bannawag and the Nakem Centennial Conference Secretariat.

Your valued input in this study will surely make a difference!

Very truly yours,

Head, Iloko Literary Research Team ‘06
& Secretary-General, GUMIL Filipinas